Sunday, November 02, 2008

Decline of the West Chapter Ten

Here is the next installment of the analysis of excerpts from Oswald Spengler's epic work, the Decline of the West, a commentary on Western Culture. My goal is to show that Jewish Culture, as it now exists in the West, has borrowed heavily from and has become so linked and entwined with Western Culture that we are in Decline with them, lockstep. These phases of Decline express themselves in parallel with that of broader Western Culture, in ways unique to our history and evolution - but the road is undeniable and the end for this phase of Jewish Culture will be the same as the end for Western Culture, death of the old paradigm. What will be born out of this death remains to be seen, both for Western Culture in general and for Judaism in particular, and we, as Jews, should be very concerned about the path that our Culture is taking and what damage the current unsustainable trends will do to us.

As usual, my comments will be in brackets.

Decline of the West
Chapter Ten
Faustian and Apollinian Nature-Knowledge

Helmholtz obsered, in a lecture of 1869 that has become famous, that "the final aim of Natural Science is to discover the motions underlying all changes, and the motive forces thereof, that is, to resolve itself into Mechanics." The specific tendency of all Western mechanics is toward an intellectual conquest by measurement.

[This conquest shows itself today in Orthodox Judaism not just by the minute rules of Kashrut, etc., which use mathematical models (such as the 1:60 ratio) to define what is and is not "acceptable," but right down to the "acceptable" length of skirts, sleeves, necklines and hairlines of the current standards of "modesty," which have become more and more strict in recent years. This conquest by measurement is intended to be established as a standard that is supposedly "unrefutable" precisely because it is mathematical. ]

To the physicists, present-day mechanics is a logical system of clear, uniquely significant concepts and of simple, necessary relations, while to the other it is a picture distinctive of the structure of the West European spirit. It is self-evident that no practical results and discoveries can prove anything as to the "truth" of the theory, the picture.

[Subjective interpretations and traditions are no longer permitted in Orthodox Judaism, to say the least.]

But formulae are dumb. The moment we clothe the dead signs in such words, give them flesh, body and live and in sum, a perceptible significance in the world, we have overstepped the limits of a mere order.

[Indeed, we have crossed over into facism.]

In living activity a person is always a man of his Culture, of his age, of his school and of his tradition. Faith and "knowledge" are only two species of inner certitude, but of the two faith is the older and it dominates all the conditions of knowing, be they never so exact. And thus it is theories and not pure numbers that are the support of all natural science.

All Laws formulated into words are derived from experiences, typical of the one - and only the one - Culture.

[And as a scion of Western Culture, the stringencies being imposed on us by the Ravs are not historical Judaism at all, but are also products of this era and this Culture - they are not "min har Sinai" and never could have been. They come from the European Ghettos, not our Middle Eastern and North African heritage. They are, in fact, alien to us.]

The pure mechanics that the physicist has set before himself as the end-form to which it is his task (and the purpose of all this imagination-machinery) to reduce Nature, presupposes a dogma - namely the religious world-picture of the Gothic centuries. For it is from this world-picture that the physics peculiar to the Western intellect is derived. There is no science that is without unconscious presuppositions of this kind, over which the researcher has no control and which can be traced back to the earliest days of the awakening Culture. There is no natural science without a precedent Religion.

[In our case, our presupposition is that the Rabbis have no duty or obligation to obey Hashem, except in the most remote sense of the words. They have evicted Hashem from the decision making process and elevated themselves to His place. That false foundation, which seeks to entrench themselves in a position of rulership over us, has been used to build structures that are even as we speak causing untold damage to us and our Culture.]

Every critical science, like every myth and every religious belief, rests upon an inner certitude. Varous as the creations of this certitude may be, both in structure and in repute, they are not different in basic principle. Any reproach, therefore, leveled by Natural science at Religion is a boomerang. We are presumptuous and no less in supposing that we can ever set up "the Truth" in the place of "antropomorphic" conceptions, for no other conceptions but these exist at all.

[In other words, the Rabbis have created their "Truth" in their own image - powermongering, hateful, spiteful, vindinctive, controlling and intolerant.]

Every idea that is possible at all is a mirror of the being of its author. The statement that "man created God in his own image," valid for every historical religion, is not less valid for every physical theory, however firm its reputed basis of fact.

[Western Culture, in its own quest to throw off Hashem's authority, has instead substituted its own theories of physics and evolution - worshipping instead the vast impersonal and unconfinable expanse of the Universe that is the goal of all Faustian thought.]

Each Culture has made its own set of images of physical processes, which are true only for itself and only alive while it is itself alive.

[And it should be very clear that a Culture that believes mice and lice appear spontaneously from dust and sweat, that mer-women exist(ed) who could have sexual relations with men, and other clearly mythical nonsense that the Orthodox Rabbis of the Middle Ages believes and that the current Ravs attempt to pass off as scientific fact, is quickly dying - along with the false notion that the Rabbis every had a direct line to Truth in their "oral law" and Talmudic writings which are clearly, as the facts now demonstrate, human additions to Hashem's written word.]

And the outcome of Faustian man's Nature idea was a dynamic of unlimited span, a physics of the distant - to the Faustian belongs the conceptual frameworks of force and mass [measureable things, after all], as opposed to the Arabian (quite Spinozistically) idea of substances with visible or secret attributes.

As with the formulation of problems and the methods of dealing with them, so also with the basic concepts. They are symbols in each case of one and only the one Culture.

In Alchemy there is a deep scientific doubt as to the plastic actuality of things. The conflict concerning the person of Christ which manifested itself in all the early Councils and led t the Nestorian and Monophysite secessions is an alchemnistic problem.

The rise of a chemical method of the Arabian style betokens a new world-consciousness. Similarly, it was just at the time of the definite emancipation of the Western Mathematic by Newton and Leibniz that the Western chemistry was freed from Arabic form by Stahl and his Phlogiston theory. Chemistry and mathematic alike became pure analysis. Then Robert Boyle devised the analytical method and with it the Western conception of the Element. That is in fact the end of genuine chemistry, its dissolution into the comprehensive system of pure dynamic, its assimilation into the mechanical outlook which the Baroque Age had established through Galileo and Newton.

[Likewise, Orthodox Judaism as become all mechanics - that is, all exteriors and all observable actions - and has become almost completely devoid of true spirit.]

What we call Statics, Chemistry and Dynamics - words that as used in modern science are merely traditional distinctions without deeper meaning - are really the respective physical systems of the Apollinian, Magian and Faustian souls, each of which grew up in its own Culture and was limited as to validity to the same.

The Atoms of Western physics, for which "indivisibility" has quite another meaning, resemble the figures and themes of music, their being or essence consisting in vibration and radiation, and their relation to the processes of Nature being that of the "motive" to the "movement."

The inner relationship between atom-theory and ethic...shows how the Faustian soul - whose being consists in the overcoming of the visible, whose feeling is loneliness and whose yearning is infinity - puts its need of solitude, distance and abstraction into all its actualities, into its public life, its spiritual and its artistic form-worlds alike.

[This incredible selfishness has manifested itself in several ways in the Orthodox world - from the idea that it is ok to swindle and take advantage of non-Jews or Jews of other shuls or other sects (ponzi schemes, insurance fraud, etc.), the idea that it is ok to ignore government rules and regulations (such as building codes and zoning laws), the idea that one's person accumulation of wealth is more important than the economic needs of the community (such as Rubashkin, for example, violating anti-trust rules to drive small Jewish shops out of business), and the idea that one's own person needs (for sexual gratification and for standing in the community) are more important than the needs of the victims of molestation, the idea that the great status of the man in full-time "learning" is more important than his poor wife who is sold into slavery to the goyim and his poor children who are left to be raised in herds by strangers - and the list goes on.]

The principle of tension...has become for Western physics fundamental. It's content follows from the notion of energy, the Will-to-Power in Nature, and therefore it is for us just as necessary as for the Classical thought it is impossible.

[Gone is the notion, both in broader Western Culture and in Jewish Culture in particular, that competition and tension in the community is not just bad but self-destructive. Now it's "survival of the fittest" at all levels of society and culture.]

Every atomic theory, therefore, is a myth and not an experience. In it the Culture, through the contemplative-creative power of its great physicists, reveals its inmost essence and very self.

The Western consciousness achieves extension, after its own fashion, as transcendental space, and as it thinks its space more and more transcendentally it develops by degrees the abstract polarity of Capacity and Intensity that so completely contrasts with the Classical visual polarity of Matter and Form. The form-world of physics extends just as far as the cognate form-world of number and notion extend, and we have seen that (notwithstanding Kant) there is not and cannot be the slightest relation of any sort between mathematical number and Time.

And here, for the second time, Natural science becomes dogmatic and mythological. The words "time" and "Destiny," for anyone who uses them instinctively, touch Life itself in its deepest depths - life as a whole, which is not to be separated from lived-experience. Physics, on the other hand - i.e. observing Reason - MUST separate them.

And therefore, as precisely and Understanding is abstracted (by means of words) from feeling, and mathematical space from light-resistances ("things"), so also physical "time" is abstracted from the impression of motion. "Physics," says Kirchhoff, "is the complete and simple description of motions." That indeed has always been its object. But the question is not one of motion in the picture but of motion of the picture. "Nature," then, is an expression of the Culture in each instance. All physics is treatment of the motion-problem - in which the life-problem is implicit - not as through it could one day be solved, but in spite of, nay because of, the fact that it is insoluble.

[This was written, of course, rather early in the 20th century. Since that time, both Western Culture and Jewish Culture have been attempting to function as if life is, in fact, a solvable problem. Western culture believes that all ills can be solved with the right combination of education and socialization, whereas Jewish culture has embraced a parallel but no less inaccurate track with the Ravs insistence that any problem can be solved by "praying harder" or "reading psalms," or "studying another page or two," or "having more faith." Insert more psalms and a solution is supposed to pop out - rather like a vending machine. It's completely mechanical.]

Let the reader conceive of the motion within a physical system as the aging of that system (as in fact it is, as lived-experience of the observer), and he will feel at once and distinctly the fatefulness immanent in, the unconquerably organic content of, the word "motion" and all its derivative ideas.

This puts the fundamentals of Faustian and Apollonian Nature-science in quite another light. No "Nature" is pure - there is always something of history in it. History is eternal becoming and therefore eternal future, Nature is become and therefore eternal past. And here a strange inversion seems to have taken place - the Becoming has lost its priority over the Become.

[That is, the past, whether real or imagined, has become more important than the future.]

When the intellect looks back from its sphere, the Become, the aspect of life is reversed, the idea of Destiny which carries aim and future in it having turned into the mechanical principle of cause-and-effect of which the centre of gravity lies in the past...To establish scientifically means, starting from the become and actualized, to search for "causes" by going back along a mechanically conceived course.

[In our case, a fabricated mechanically conceived course!]

But it is not possible to live backwards, only to think backwards. Not Time and Destiny are reversible, but only that which the physicist calls "Time" and admits into his formulae as divisible, and preferably as negative or imaginary quantities.

The concepts force, mass, and motion constitute a dogmatic unit. They so condition one another that the application of one of them tacitly involves both the others from the outset. The notion of mass is only the complemnt of that of force. Newton, a deeply religious nature, was only bringing the Faustian world-feeling to expression when, to elucidate the words "force" and "motion," he said that masses are points of attack for force and carriers for motion. So the 13th century Mystics had conceived of God as his relation to the world. Force is to the mechanical Nature-picture of Western man what Will is to his soul-picture and infinite Godhead in his world-picture. The primary ideas of this physics stood firm long before the first physicist was born, for they lay in the earliest religious world-consciousness of our Culture.

[And that earliest consciousness of Western Culture was that of forcing people to submit to its rule - especially to its religious rule - and the current Ravs have imbibed this consciousness hook, line, and sinker. Now they believe they can use force to make people religiously observant and to accept their stringencies-du-jour - social terrorism and even physical violence. This was never, every a part of authentic Judaism until now - it is born of the imperialism and Will-to-Power of Western Culture and has no legitimate place in Judaism. And it is on this false idea that Judaism will founder, for using force only engenders fear, and fear only engenders hate - hate for the Rabbis and, by extension, hate for Judaism and finally, hate of Hashem.]

Nature-laws are forms of the known in which an aggregate of individual cases are brought together as a unit of higher degree. Living Time is ignored. That is Faustian.

It is only from this standpoint that miracles appear as breaches of the laws of Nature. Magian man saw in them merely the exercise of power that was not common to all, not in any way a contradiction to the laws of nature. And Classical man, according to Protagoras, was only the measure and not the creator of things, a view that unconsciously forgoes all conquest of Nature through the discovery and application of laws.

We see, then, that the causality-principle, in the for in which it is self-evidently necessary for us - the agreed basis of truth for our mathematics, physics, and philosophy - is a Western and, more strictly speaking, a Baroque phenomenon. It cannot be proved, for every proof set forth in a Western language and every experiment conducted by a Western mind presupposes itself.

The appeal to "experience" and the controversy as to whether judgment is necessary or empirical - i.e. in the language of Kant (who greatly deceived himself about the highly fluid boundaries between the two), whether it is a priori or a posteriori certain - are characteristically Western. But no one has noticed that a whole world-view is implicit in such a concept of "experience" with its agressive dynamic connotation, and that there is not and cannot be "experience" in this pregnant sense for men of other Cultures.

We can now saw without any hesitation that the form-world of a Natural science corresponds to those of the appropriate mathematic, the appropriate religion, the appropriate art.

Astonishment at alien motion is the source of religion and of physics both, respectively, they are the elucidations of Nature (world-around) by the soul and by the reason. The "powers" are the first object both of fearful or living reverence and of critical investigation. There is a religious experience and a scientific experience.

[Modern culture no longer admits to this in the West. All experience is either scientifically measurable or it is not valid - hence the personal experiences of millions of people who have experienced Hashem's peace and have had prayers answered are swept off the table as ignorant irrelevance. Science has become arrogant, believing there are no answers other than scientific ones. And in Orthodox Judaism, the same has happened. Now, there are no answers other than the "approved" ones, the ones arrived at through their Talmudic process, written only by the hands of the initiated inner circle who are never permitted to think outside the box, much in the same way the scientific community has become the high priesthood of Darwinism to the extent of tarring and feathering any scientist who refuses to submit to their orthodoxy.]

Now it is important to observe how the consciousness of each Culture intellectually condenses its primary "numina." It imposes significant words - names - on them and thereby conjures (seizes or bounds) them. The pronouncement of the right name (in physics, the right concept) is an incantation.

[This is the magic of political correctness is broader western culture, and the same magic of thought control exists in the Rabbinic Culture.]

Scientists are wont to assume that myths and God-ideas are creations of primitive man, and that as spiritual culture "advances," this myth forming power is shed. In reality it is the exact opposite.

[Secular/athiesic writers have long predicted that scientific-man would shed religion, yet man has not only not shed religion but religion and spiritualism has grown by leaps and bounds, much to their dismay. Some athiests have now taken to calling religion a mental illness, since people decline to follow the athiests plan for society to ditch religion, and the athiests cannot figure out why - therefore adhereing to religion must be illogical or irrational, that is, crazy. Again, anything that cannot be demonstrated scientifically has no value to these persons, and the things that cannot be explained by science are dismissed as fantasy - no matter how many millions of people can attest to such experiences. Such persons claim those other millions of people are mentally defective instead of admitting they themselves are relying on a faulty world-view which has not and cannot account for all things as they really are in the Living-Experience of everyone.

The Ravs suffer from the same delusion - that if a person is not Orthodox according to their standards, if they belong to any other sect or to no sect at all, that their religion must not be genuine. Again, a falsehood that is born of a ghetto-worldview of exclusionism and an imperialism born of Western Culture.]

This ability of a soul to fill its world with shapes, traits and symbols - like and consistent amongst themselves - belongs most decidedly not to the world-age of the primitives but exclusively to the springtimes of great Cultures. Every myth of the great style stands at the beginning of an awakening spirituality. It is the first formative act of that spirituality. Nowhere else is it to be found. There - it must be.

[So religion and spiritualism of all kinds are on the rise precisely because the Western Culture built on scientific foundations alone is dying and will die - like all other cultures before it. Science has failed people - it has become a joke, in fact, to many people, who know that scientists find what they are paid to find, or what they are ideologically predisposed to find, or what their school or professional associations insists that they find according to the "accepted" paradigm. People have trusted science and been screwed by it. Scientists have pretended to understand processes that they did not understand, declared things that are perfectly safe and natural to be dangerous, declared things that turned out to be deadly to be harmless, and declared anyone "crazy" whose symptoms did not respond to their standardized treatments and whose experiences did not fit into their pre-conceived molds. So now, nobody takes science seriously, because they recognize it for what it is - a cult, a Cultural cult built on a fantasy that man can be all-knowing and all-controlling. A fantasy, by the way, that many believe Hashem is about to blast into oblivion Himself - many people "sense" this, but are scored for their "unscientific" knowledge!]

There are many form-worlds of great myth as there are Cultures and early architectures. As to the meaning of a myth, its provenance proves nothing. The "numen" itself, the primary form of the world-feeling, is a pure, necessary and unconscious creation, and it is not transferable. The basis of the Apollinian and the Faustian Nature-images respectively are in all contexts the two opposite symbols of individual thing and unitary space. It is as though the Faustian universe abhorred anything material and impenetrable.

But is not just this the secret intent of our physical theories, of each new hypothesis? No other Culture knows so many fables of treasures lying in mountains and pools, of secret subterranean realms, palaces, gardens, wherein other beings dwell. The who substantiality of the visible world is denied by the Faustian Nature-feeling, for which in the end nothing is of earth and the only actual is Space. The fairy-tale dissolves the matter of Nature...into a ghostly wealth of forms and lines that have shed all weight and acknowledge no bounds.

[Hence our modern society clings to vampires and werewolves, faeries, sorcerers, aliens from outer space, and other unscientific genres of entertainment and social discourse - it is the sign of the death of scientific rationalism, the sign of people's rejection of the foundation of Western Culture and thereby signalling its oncoming death. In the Orthodox Jewish world, it's more complex. People burned out in the secular Western Culture have turned by the hundreds to Orthodox Judaism in an attempt to escape the straight-jacket of godless scientific rationalism, only to eventually encounter the empty truth of the godless Rabbinic rationalism they are trying to pass off as authentic Jewish experience of Hashem. This is where our culture, like broader Western Culture, is in flux - the death of the old and the birth of....what? We don't yet know. All we can know for sure is that it will be - must be - a rejection of what has been, the rigid mathematical imperialism and conformity of the ghetto.]

Hitherto, names had been the designations of so many gods different in body and locality, now they are titles of the One whom every man has in mind. This Magian monotheism reveals itself in all the religious creations that flooded the Empire from the East. They absorb the old gods into themselves, and do so in shch a way as to deprive them more and more of picturable shape. Alchemy is replacing statics. Correspondingly, instead of the image we more and more find symbols coming to the front. Already there is setting in that aversion to human representation that ended in the Islamic and Byzantine prohibitions of images.

[As anger and frustration against the incredibly bad leadership of the Ravs increases, this trend will begin to show. Right now, there are still many, many orthodox homes that display images of Ravs either current or deceased - in silent recognition that the Ravs have elevated themselves into the place of idols. With the Decline approaching, and more and more Ravs show themselves not only to be fallible but to be actually selfish, not just to be damaging their own family but damaging the community with their unsustainable rulings - and their chillul Hashem which is now appearing daily in the blogs and newspapers.]

Atheism is a subject that the psychologist and the student of religion have hitherto regarded as scarcely worth careful investigation. No one has had anything to say about the species of atheism, or has treated in analytically as an individual and definite phenomenon.

[Orthodox Judaism, in particular, claims that atheism is the result of "outside influences," when in fact people become atheists not because of what they learn of science or history from outside culture, but because of how they are treated INSIDE their Orthodox Culture.]

Atheism, rightly understood, is the necessary expression of a spirituality that has accomplished itself and exhausted its religious possibilities, and is decline into the inorganic. It is entirely compatible with a living wistful desire for real religiousness. Atheism comes not with the evening of the Culture but with the dawn of Civilization.

[You may recall from earlier chapters, Civilization is the "urban" phase of a Culture, which tries to substitute intellectualism for real feeling-nature-experience, and inevitably fails. When people realize their needs are not going to be met by Orthodox Judaism, that the Rabbis care only about their mathematical formulae and not about individual people, they become atheists because they cannot separate Hashem from the Ravs who claim to represent them. They have been told that what they have been subjected to is "Hashem's will" for so long that they believe it, and finally conclude that a Being with such a defective will either does not really exist or is not a Being worthy of worship. They cannot, because they have not been allowed to, separate Hashem from the Ravs and the mechanical religion they have created in His name.]

But, if this late form of world-feeling and world-image which preludes our "second religiousness" is universally a negation of the religious in us, the structure of it is different in each of the Civilizations. There is no religiousness that is without an atheistic opposition belonging uniquely to itself and directed uniquely against itself. Men continue to experience the outer world that extends around them as a cosmos of well-ordered bodies or a world-cavern or eternally active space, as the case may be, but they no longer livingly experience the sacred causality in it. They only perceive a profane causality that is, or is desired to be, inclusively mechanical.

Dead space and dead things are the "facts" of physics. The atheist is unable to experience any difference between the Nature-picture of physics and that of religion. Language, with a fine feeling, distinguishes wisdom and intelligence - the early and the late, the rural and the megalopolitan conditions of the soul.

The spiritual in every living Culture is religious, has religion, whether it be conscious of it or not. It is not open to a spirituality to be irreligious. At most it can play with the idea of irreligion as Medicean Florentines did.

But the megalopolitan is irreligious. This is part of his being, a mark of his historical position. The degree of piety of which a period is capable is revealed in its attitude toward toleration. One tolerates something either because it seems to have some relation to what according to one's experience is the divine, or else because one is no longer capable of such experience and is indifferent. What we moderns have called "Toleration" in the Classical world is an expression of the contrary of atheism. Plurality of numina and cults is inherent in the conception of Classical religion. But to the Faustian soul dogma and not visible ritual constitutes the essence. What is regarded as godless is opposition to doctrine.

[It's a fine line in Orthodox Judaism, but you can sense as well as I can that this distinction exists and has become the guiding zeitgeist of Orthodox Judaism - the enforcement, by whatever means, of dogma, and we use external conformity as the measure of conformity to dogma.]

Here begins the spatial-spiritual conception of heresy. A Faustian religion by its very nature cannot allow any freedom of conscience. It would be in contradiction with its space-invasive dynamic. Even free-thinking itself is no exception to the rule. Amongst us there is no faith without leanings to an inquisition of some sort.

[The Orthodox Jewish Inquisition takes the form, as we have seen, of ostracization, social terrorism, and finally physical violence.]

Expressed in appropriate electrodynamic imagery, the field of force of a conviction adjusts all the minds within it according to its own intensity. Failure to do so means absence of conviction - in ecclesiastical language, ungodliness.

The poets and thinkers of the mature Faustian Culture were at liberty "not to go to Church," to avoid Confession, to stay at home on procession-days and (in Protestant surroundings) to live without any relations with the church whatever. But they were not free to touch points of dogma, for that would have been dangerous within any confession and any sect, including, once more and expressly, free-thought. The Roman Stoic, who without faith in the mythology piously observed the ritual forms, has his counterpart in those men of the Age of Enlightenment, like Lessing and Goeth, who disregarded the rites of the Church but never doubted the "fundamental truths of faith."

[Now, nearly 100 years later in the development of our Culture, the opposite has taken place. People live in fear of "appearing" different, live the Orthodox life, go through the forms, but have no belief or faith at all - it's called Orthopraxy. They value the Culture as culture, but not as religion. They participate in the culture as culture, but not as religion. They have no choice, for if they decline to conform to the stringencies and ritual of their community, they will be cast out of it, even cast out of their own families. This, however, can only be a temporary phenomenon, because living a lie is not something that mankind can endure for long. In the end, it causes more problems than it solves. As for broader Western Culture, doubt has now become the norm - faith is regarded as aberrant by the elites, even though the majority of people express some sort of faith or spirituality. In both Cultures, the disconnect is becoming palatable and is a necessary step in the Death of the Old Culture and the transition to the New.]

Western physics is by its inward form dogmatic and not ritualistic (kultisch). Its content is the dogma of Force, which is identical with space and distance.

[That is, it shows itself in the Orthodox practice of attempting to control everyone within a certain self-defined territory, such as a neighborhood or village.]

That this "force" or "energy" is really a numen stiffened into a concept (and in nowise the result of scientific experience) is shown by the often overlooked fact that the basic principle known as the First Law of Thermodynamics says nothing whatsoever about the nature of energy, and it is properly speaking an incorrect (though psychologically most significant) assumption that the idea of the "Conservation of Energy" is part of it.

There always remains, therefore, an undefined additive constant, as we call it. In other words, we always strive to maintain the image of an energy that our inner eye has formed, although actual scientific practice is not concerned with it. It follows that we can no more define it that we can define those other un-Classical words "will" and "space." There remains always a felt and intuitively perceived remainder which makes every personal definition an almost religious creed of its author. The force-dogma is the one and only theme of Faustian physics. There is no Western statics.

The possible alternative ways of reaching an unequivocal definition of force - viz. that which starts from World and not God, from the object and not the subject of natural motion-state - was leading at the very same time the formulation of the concept of Energy. The motion-problem is as insoluble as ever.

[That is, life and observance cannot stay static - it must move.]

All that has happened on the way from Newton to Faraday - or from Berkeley to Mill - is that the religious deed-idea and been replaced by the irreligious work-idea.

[Which in Orthodox Judaism has developed into the FALSE dichotomy between religious observance and working for a living. Historical Judaism knew no such dichotomy - it is strictly the child of Western Culture imposed upon Jewish Culture.]

Even economic systems wield the same concepts, the value-problem has been in relation with quantity of work ever since Adam Smith, who vis-a-vis Quesney and Turgot marks the change from an organic to a mechanical structure of the economic field. Phrases could be found in the language of economists which correspond exactly to the physical propositions of conservation of energy, entropy, and least action.

If, then, we review the successive stages through which the central idea of force has passed since its birth in the Baroque, and its intimate relations with the form-worlds of the great arts and of mathematics, we find that...with the Culture at its end and the civilized intelligence victorious over the spiritual, it appears in the domain of pure analysis, and in particular in the theory of functions of several complex variables, without which it is, in its most modern form, scarcely understandable.

But with this, it cannot be denied, Western physics is drawing near to the limit of its possibilities. At bottom, its mission as a historical phenomenon has been to transform the Faustian Nature-feeling into an intellectual knowledge, the faith-forms of springtime into the mechanical forms of exact science. In those deeps the essence and nucleus of our science is in rapid disintegration.

That is the origin of the sudden and annihilating doubt that has arisen about things that even yesterday were the unchallenged foundation of physical theory, about the meaning of the energy-principle, the concepts of mass, space, absolute time, and causality-laws generally. It is a doubt affecting the very possibility of a Nature-science. The moment is at hand now when the possibility of a self-contained and self-consistent mechanics will be given up for good. The principle of the Conservation of Energy has no meaning if energy is supposed to be infinite in an infinite space. The acceptance of the principle is incompatible with any three-dimensional structure of space.

But symbolic infinity was just what the Faustian world-feeling had meant to express in this basic idea, which was simply the mechanical and extensional re-ideation of the idea of immortality of the world-soul. In fact, it was a feeling out of which knowledge could never succeed in forming a clear system. It's specific tendency is to destroy the notion of absolute time. If we observe how rapidly card-houses of hypotheses are run up nowadays, every contradiction being immediately covered up by a new hurried hypothesis...we cannot but realize that the great style of ideation is at an end and that, as in architecture and the arts of form, a soft of craft-art of hypothesis-building has taken its place. Only our extreme maestria in experimental technique - true child of its Culture - hides the collapse of the symbolism.

[Similarly, the house of cards of the rulings of the Rabbis, each more flimsy and built on more obviously false medieval or ghetto foundations than the last, is starting to get out of hand and is showing signs of starting to fall down.]

The basic element of the Faustian world-picture is not the Attitude but the Deed and, mechanically considered, the Process. That is, the dynamic system is manifestly approaching to some final state, whatever this may be. What has never hitherto been fully felt, and what leads me to regard the Entropy theory as the beginning of the destruction of the masterpiece of Western Intelligence, the old dynamic physics, is deep opposition of theory and actuality which is here for the first time introduced into theory itself.

Not even under the artificial conditions of laboratory experiment can the simplest process be exactly reversed, that is, a state once past cannot be re-established.

[This does not, however, keep the Rabbis from giving it their best shot, in spite of the fact that their idealized "past" of currently enforced stringencies and intolerance for differences of practice and tradition is 100% fabricated.]

Noting is more significant of the present condition of systematics than the introduction of the hypothesis of "elementary disorder" for the purpose of smoothing out the contradiction between intellectual postulate and actual experience.

The object of understanding is ourselves. The Nature "known" in this wise is the Nature that we know by way of living experience, that we live in ourselves. Becoming and Become, Destiny and Causality, historical and natural-science elements, are beginning to be confused.

[Or, in our case, not accidentally confused but purposefully obfuscated by the Ravs.]

The critical form-world of Nature-knowledge started in the opposition direction to Nature-feeling, God-feeling. Here, at the end of the Late Period, it has reaches the maximal distance and is turning to come home. The more dynamics exhausts its inner possibilities as it nears the goal, the more decidedly the historical characters in the picture come to the front and the more insistently the organic necessity of Destiny asserts itself side by side with the inorganic necessity of Causality, and Direction makes itself felt along with capacity and intensity, the factors of pure extension.

With ideas like these, they mythopoetic force of the Faustian soul is returning to its origins. Force, Will, has an aim, and where there is an aim there is for the inquiring eye an end - the conclusion, that is, of a willed directedness - assumes here the form of the concept. The Faust of the Second part is dying, for he has reached his goal. What the myth of Gotterdammerung signified of old, the irreligious form of it, the theory of Entropy, signifies today.

It remains now to sketch the last stage of Western science. From our standpoint of today, the gently sloping route of Decline is clearly visible. This too, the power of looking ahead to inevitable Destiny, is part of the historical capacity that is the peculiar endowment of the Faustian. Before us there stands a last spiritual crisis that will involve all Europe and America. The Tyranny of the Reason - of which we are not conscious, for we are ourselves its apex - is in every Culture an epoch between man and old-man, and no more. Its most distinct expression is the cult of exact sciences, of dialectic, of demonstration, of causality. What form will the downward curve assume?

A change of feeling (neuer Zug von Innerlichkeit) will overcome the will to victory of science. Exact science must presently fall upon its own keen sword. From Skepsis, there is a path to "second religiousness," which is the sequel and not the preface of the Culture. Men dispense with proof, desire only to believe and not to dissect. Scientific results are merely items of an intellectual tradition. An orgy of two [three] centuries of exact scientific-ness brings satiety. Everything that does not belong to the matter-of-fact side of life - to politics, technics, or economics - exhibits the common symptom.

But before the curtain falls, there is one more task for the historical Faustian spirit, a task not yet specified, hitherto not even imagined as possible. There has still to be written a morphology of the exact sciences, which shall discover how all laws, concepts, and theories inwardly hand together as forms and what they have meant as such in the life-course of the Faustian Culture.

[That is, string theory, et all - the Unified Force, being written even as we speak.]

This will be the definitive conquest of the mechanical world-aspect by an intuitive, once more religious world-outlook, a last master effort of physiognomic to break down even systematic and to absorb it, as expression and symbol, into its own domain. One day we shall no longer ask, as the 19th century asked, what are the valid laws underlying chemical affinity or diamagnetism - rather we shall be amazed indeed that minds of the first order could every have been completely preoccupied by such questions as these. And, be it said, we have today hardly yet an inkling of how much in our reputedly objective values and experiences is only disguise, on image and expression.

The separate sciences - epistemology, physics, chemistry, mathematics, astronomy - are approaching one another with acceleration, converging towards a complete identity of results. This issue will be a fusion of the form-worlds, which will present on the one hand a system of numbers, functional in nature and reduced to a few ground-formulae, and on the other a small group of theories, denominators to those numerators, which in the end will be seen to be myths of the springtime under modern veils, reducible therefore - and at once of necessity reduced - to picturable and physiognomically significant basic characteristics.

The paths that our science is pursuing - on the one hand, towards the discovery that its logical and numerical results are identical with the structure of the reason itself, and, on the other, towards the revelation that the whole theory which clothes these numbers merely represents the symbolic expression of Faustian life.

[In other words, once all that is measurable is measured, all that is quantifiable is quantified, and all that is scientifically knowable is scientifically known, it will become evident that Faustian, that is Western, Culture has nowhere to go - and yet the fundamental questions of life and purpose have not been answered. Orthodox Judaism, too, will have added every possible stringency, reduced every mitzvah to a formulae of correctness, will have reduced itself to a dead mathematic and will have reduced everyone's life to a tightrope of fear of making a mistake and loathing of those who put these burdens upon them - and will likewise still not bring Hashem or peace to Orthodox Jews. Indeed, violence, imperialism, coercion, and terrorism have never brought peace.]

The aim to which all this is striving, and which in particular every Nature-searcher feels in himself as an impulse, is the achievement of a pure numerical transcendence, the complete and inclusive conquest of the visibly apparent and its replacement by a language of imagery unintelligible to the layman and impossible of sensuous realization - but a language that the great Faustian symbol if Infinite Space endows with the dignity of inward necessity. Thus the inorganic, known and dissected world, the World as Nature and System, has deepened itself until it is a pure sphere of functional numbers. The goal reached, the vast and ever more meaningless and threadbare fabric woven around natural science falls apart. The less anthropomorphic science believes itself to be, the more anthropomorphic it is.

Out of the Gothic soul grew up, till it overshadowed the religious world-picture, the spirit of the City, the alter ego of irreligious Nature-science. But now, in the sunset of the scientific epoch and the rise of victorious Skepsis, the clouds dissolve and the quiet landscape of the morning reappears in all distinctness. The final issue to which the Faustian wisdom tends - though it is only in the highest moments that it has seen it - is the dissolution of all knowledge into a vast system of morphological relationships. The uniting of the several sciences aspects into one will bear all the marks of the great art of counterpoint.

[This integration of everything into one unit is the now current goal of Orthodox Judaism - to absorb into itself everything that can be defined as "Jewish" and to expel anything that will not conform itself to the Orthodox mythology. It is the final dying breath of the Ghetto mentality, and people are already fleeing it in increasing numbers. It cannot survive, and will not.]

This union, a necessity of the Faustian understanding of the world, following the formula of a dynamic-imperative causality, will develop into a single world-transforming science, which will be the grand legacy of the Faustian soul to the soul of Cultures yet to be, a bequest of immensely transcendent forms that the heirs will possibly ignore. And then, weary after its striving, Western science returns to its spiritual home.

[And Orthodoxy will likewise reach its own dead end of imperialism and conquest, which will likewise be ignored by the next generations, and will also be transformed back into its 12 constituent tribes, each having their own interpretations, traditions, dialects, territory and practices - each accepted with joy by Hashem, and with tolerance by each other, our return to our spiritual home. That, or we will die, having been strangled to death by Western Culture and unable to escape from its grip. Those are our only two choices. Which one we choose is entirely up to us.]

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